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Musings of a music student

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ragam

Gossip, Jealousy and more

So the topic that has been frequenting me recently is, how music conveys emotions. I heard novices of classical music identify emotions to phrases being sung in a packed-hall in IIM Ranchi, I conversed about how a raga as nice Mayamalava Gowla convey pathos in a song like Manam Irangadha, I read about Atana being personified as a stealthy-caressing-gentle lover.

Initially, it is amazing. It is even a tad confusing. We cannot just map a feeling to a raga just like that. I mean, words mean nothing here, you need to listen to understand. It would be empty enough if I wrote a table down saying Neelambari is for sleeping, Mohanam is for joy, or whatsoever. Generally that might be what the raga emotes, however, it is the way a phrase is sung that actually speaks out.

In similar lines, there is this song called Adhuvum Solluval by Subbarama Iyer. It is a padam set in the raga Sowrashtram. If you ask me, I would say Sowrashtram is one of the most drab, colorless raga I ever knew. But, it has been wisely used to paint a vivid and enthralling pictures of jealousy in the said song.

The song is set like this: two women gossip about a third who is not in the scene. This lady is said to have been poor and below in status than one of the gossiper, but now she has got sudden riches and flaunts it big time, causing the jealousy.

I especially love the charanam. That is where all the drama is. She talks about how this poor girl who used to come to borrow things from her, now has a mansion with superior furniture and silk sarees filled-wardrobe; about how the house is full of help maids and she is full of pride.

It goes:

enneramum inge vandhu nagai endrum thuni endrum iraval kaetta naal poche
enakkedhiraga avalukku sanna karai itta meddhai veedundaache
unnadam unnadamaga kattilaachu medhaiyachu
uyarndha raga magamal pattu pudavayum achu
thannaivida bhagyasaali kidayadhendru ennamachu
thaniyaay irundhavalku thaadhi maargal undachu
(adhuvum solluval aval anegam solluval aval mel kutram ennadi, adiye podi)

Listen to Ms.Geetha Raja (from whom I learnt this song) sing the song,Β here.

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

Mohanam

After Nattakurinji, for a fitting finale, I could not have chosen anything better than Mohanam. One will have the feeling of having lived life King size after listening to this raga; it is that grand and fulfilling.

Mohanam belongs to the family of Harikamboji with 5 swaras in scale – S R2 G3 P D2 S / S D2 P G3 R2 S

Mohanam is the oldest ragam known to mankind, according to Dr. S. Ramanathan’s doctoral dissertation. It can be sung in any phase of the concert, proving to be the all-time raga that it is. Also called as Bhoop / Bhoopali in hindustani, this raga is used to denote bravery; it is used in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish music it seems.

A favourite of trinity and contemporary composers alike, mohanam holds a lot of kritis to its credit:

  • Thyagaraja’s Bhavanuta, Dhayaranee, Mohana Rama, Nannupalimpa, Evarura Ninnuvina …
  • Dikshitar’s Rajagopalam, Narasimha Aagacha, Gopika Manoharam (by Ambi Dikshitar) …
  • Papanasam Sivan’s Kapali …
  • Annamayya’s Cheri Yashodhaku …
  • Arunachala Kavi’s Yen Palli Kondeerayya …
  • Oothukkadu’s Swagatham Krishna …
  • GNB’s Sada Palaya (Sa Da Pa are the same notes) …
  • Maanikka Veenai Endhum from unknown composer …

For a complete understanding and enjoyment of Mohanam, please listen to this blend of instruments by Lalgudi Jayaraman, Ramani and Venkatraman – playing violin, flute and veena respectively. (performed in 1967)

Below is a rendition of a Thillana in Mohanam raga, a composition of Harikesanallur Muthiah Bagavathar.

Some very interesting compositions from the myriad of movie songs I had to choose from are:

  • Aaha Inba Nilavinile from Maaya Bazaar
  • Pazhaga Theriya Venum from Missiyamma (writing this suppressing the feminist in me!)
  • Giridhara Gopala from Meera
  • Paadumbodhu Naan Thendral Kaatru from Netru Indru Naalai
  • Ninnukori Varnam from Agni Natchathiram
  • Kanmaniye Kaadhal Enbadhu from 6 ilirundhu 60 varai
  • Vaan Pole Vannam from Salangai Oli
  • Porale Ponnuthayi from Karuthamma (influence)
  • Pakkadhe Pakkadhe from Gentleman
  • The Chinese song in 7am Arivu …

In the striking voice of Ghantasala and P. Leela, Aaha Inba Nilavinile…

A special thanks to dad (for equipping me with most of the knowledge that I have said and teaching and singing along in all the recordings), karnatik.com (main reference) and to everyone else for your encouragement.

Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

16. Mohanam

After Nattakurinji, for a fitting finale, I could not have chosen anything better than Mohanam. One will have the feeling of having lived life King size after listening to this raga; it is that grand and fulfilling.

Mohanam belongs to the family of Harikamboji with 5 swaras in scale – S R2 G3 P D2 S / S D2 P G3 R2 S

Mohanam is the oldest ragam known to mankind, according to Dr. S. Ramanathan’s doctoral dissertation. It can be sung in any phase of the concert, proving to be the all-time raga that it is. Also called as Bhoop / Bhoopali in hindustani, this raga is used to denote bravery; it is used in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish music it seems.

A favourite of trinity and contemporary composers alike, mohanam holds a lot of kritis to its credit:

Thyagaraja’s Bhavanuta, Dhayaranee, Mohana Rama, Nannupalimpa, Evarura Ninnuvina …

Dikshitar’s Rajagopalam, Narasimha Aagacha, Gopika Manoharam (by Ambi Dikshitar) …

Papanasam Sivan’s Kapali …

Annamayya’s Cheri Yashodhaku …

Arunachala Kavi’s Yen Palli Kondeerayya …

Oothukkadu’s Swagatham Krishna …

GNB’s Sada Palaya (Sa Da Pa are the same notes) …

Maanikka Veenai Endhum from unknown composer …

For a complete understanding and enjoyment of Mohanam, please listen to this blend of instruments by Lalgudi Jayaraman, Ramani and Venkatraman – playing violin, flute and veena respectively. (performed in 1967)

Some very interesting compositions from the myriad of movie songs I had to choose from are:

  • Aaha Inba Nilavinile from Maaya Bazaar
  • Pazhaga Theriya Venum from Missiyamma (writing this suppressing the feminist in me!)
  • Giridhara Gopala from Meera
  • Paadumbodhu Naan Thendral Kaatru from Netru Indru Naalai
  • Ninnukori Varnam from Agni Natchathiram
  • Kanmaniye Kaadhal Enbadhu from 6 ilirundhu 60 varai
  • Vaan Pole Vannam from Salangai Oli
  • Porale Ponnuthayi from Karuthamma (influence)
  • Pakkadhe Pakkadhe from Gentleman
  • The Chinese song in 7am Arivu …

In the striking voice of Ghantasala and P. Leela, Aaha Inba Nilavinile…

A special thanks to dad (for equipping me with most of the knowledge that I have said and teaching and singing along in all the recordings), karnatik.com (main reference) and to everyone else for your encouragement.

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

Nattakurinji

And this is the penultimate raga – NΒ  for Nattakurinji, after a detailed Brindavana Saranga.

Nattakurinji is a child raga of Harikamboji. It is very vakra (zigzag) in usage.

Aarohanam: S R2 G3 M1 N2 D2 N2 P D2 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D2 M1 G3 M1 P G3 R2 S

Nattakurinji, I feel is ruggedly beautiful, say like a trek route, in its nuances πŸ™‚ Classical songs in this raga include –

  • Budhamashrayami, the navagraha kriti for Wednesday, by Dikshitar
  • Parvathi Kumaram Bhavaye by Dikshitar
  • Kuvalayadala Nayana by Thyagaraja
  • Ekkalathilum by Ramasamy Sivan

This soundcloud link has me singing a song Parvathi Kumaram by Muthuswamy Dikshitar.

Maybe because it should be identified very precisely, this raga has not been handled that much in movies. But those evident pieces of work are:

Kavalayai Theerpadhu Naatiya Kalaye from Shivakavi… wherein the last line goes “…raagathil sirandhadhu naatakurinjiye…”

At Chitra’s best and in all shades of blue and green, Kannamoochi Yenada from Kandukonden…

And the last post will be M for …

Until then,

Vid πŸ™‚

15. Nattakurinji

And this is the penultimate raga – NΒ  for Nattakurinji, after a detailed Brindavana Saranga.

Nattakurinji is a child raga of Harikamboji. It is very vakra (zigzag) in usage.

Aarohanam: S R2 G3 M1 N2 D2 N2 P D2 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D2 M1 G3 M1 P G3 R2 S

Nattakurinji, I feel is ruggedly beautiful, say like a trek route, in its nuances πŸ™‚ Classical songs in this raga include –

Budhamashrayami, the navagraha kriti for Wednesday, by Dikshitar

Parvathi Kumaram Bhavaye by Dikshitar

Kuvalayadala Nayana by Thyagaraja

Ekkalathilum by Ramasamy Sivan

This soundcloud link has me singing a song Parvathi Kumaram by Muthuswamy Dikshitar.

Maybe because it should be identified very precisely, this raga has not been handled that much in movies. But those evident pieces of work are:

Kavalayai Theerpadhu Naatiya Kalaye from Shivakavi… wherein the last line goes “…raagathil sirandhadhu naatakurinjiye…”

At Chitra’s best and in all shades of blue and green, Kannamoochi Yenada from Kandukonden…

And the last post will be M for …

Until then,

Vid πŸ™‚

Brindavana Saranga

So this post is B for Brindavana Saranga. A raga with an appeal to any kind of audience and at any time, in my opinion.

It is the janya of the giant family of Karaharapriya with a scale as:

Aarohanam: S R2 M1 P N3 S

Avarohanam: S N2 P M1 R2 G2 R2 S / S N2 P M1 R2 S

There are heavy classical songs, however, it is best suited for post-main part of the concert. Some famous songs in Brindavana Saranga include:

  • Rangapura Vihara, Sowndara Rajam, Swaminathena by Dikshitar
  • Kamalaptha Kula by Thyagaraja
  • Enta Matramuna (part of the song) by Annamacharya
  • Kaliyuga Varadhan by Periyasami Thooran

Have sung Aasai Mugam Marandhu Poche, a Bharathiyar song, a version that is set in BS, tuned by my dad (and I did not know that till now :(), in the below link.

Owing to its pleasing and emotional effect, just like Desh, it has been used / influence used in a lot of movie songs by a lot of music composers.

Pon Ondru Kanden from Padithal Mattum Podhuma – Vishwanathan / Ramamurthy

Singaara Kanne Un from Veerapandiya Kattabomman – G Ramanathan

Maadathile from Veera – Ilayaraja

Konjum Mainakkale from Kandukonden – A R Rahman

Radhai Manadhil from Snehithiye – Vidhyasagar

Ye Samba Ye Samba from Pandavar Bhoomi – Bharadwaj

Nenjankootil from Dishoom – Vijay Antony

Urugudhey from Veyil – G V Prakash

Saavan Aaye Ya Naa – Dil Diya Dard Liya (hindustani touch) sung by Mohamad Rafi and Asha Bhosle.

Howver, there is this never ending debate that the raga Brindavani and Brindavana Saranga are one and the same or not. Let me not delve into that topic in this post, hence knowledgeable people might find some of the songs mixed and repesented under the same raga title. #disclaimer

  • Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

14. Brindavana Saranga

So this post is B for Brindavana Saranga. A raga with an appeal to any kind of audience and at any time, in my opinion.

It is the janya of the giant family of Karaharapriya with a scale as:

Aarohanam: S R2 M1 P N3 S

Avarohanam: S N2 P M1 R2 G2 R2 S / S N2 P M1 R2 S

There are heavy classical songs, however, it is best suited for post-main part of the concert. Some famous songs in Brindavana Saranga include:

  • Rangapura Vihara, Sowndara Rajam, Swaminathena by Dikshitar
  • Kamalaptha Kula by Thyagaraja
  • Enta Matramuna (part of the song) by Annamacharya
  • Kaliyuga Varadhan by Periyasami Thooran

Have sung Aasai Mugam Marandhu Poche, a Bharathiyar song, a version that is set in BS, tuned by my dad (and I did not know that till now :(), in the below link.

Owing to its pleasing and emotional effect, just like Desh, it has been used / influence used in a lot of movie songs by a lot of music composers.

Pon Ondru Kanden from Padithal Mattum Podhuma – Vishwanathan / Ramamurthy

Singaara Kanne Un from Veerapandiya Kattabomman – G Ramanathan

Maadathile from Veera – Ilayaraja

Konjum Mainakkale from Kandukonden – A R Rahman

Radhai Manadhil from Snehithiye – Vidhyasagar

Ye Samba Ye Samba from Pandavar Bhoomi – Bharadwaj

Nenjankootil from Dishoom – Vijay Antony

Urugudhey from Veyil – G V Prakash

Saavan Aaye Ya Naa – Dil Diya Dard Liya (hindustani touch) sung by Mohamad Rafi and Asha Bhosle.

Howver, there is this never ending debate that the raga Brindavani and Brindavana Saranga are one and the same or not. Let me not delve into that topic in this post, hence knowledgeable people might find some of the songs mixed and repesented under the same raga title. #disclaimer

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

Vasantha

This post is about the raga Vasantha. One of the oldest raga in vogue for more than a thousand years, it is said; suitable to be sung in the evening.

It is derived from the 17th melakartha (parent raga) Suryakantham. The scale is S M1 G3 M1 D2 N3 S / S N3 D2 M1 G3 R1 S. As you can notice, it is a PA varjya (sans) raga.

Kritis in Vasantha include:

  • Ramachandram Bhavayami by Dikshitar
  • Seethamma Maayamma by Thyagaraja
  • Kodu Bega Divyamathi by Purandara Dasar
  • Natanam Aadinaar by Gopalakrishna Bharathi

This sound cloud link has a song by Dasar sung in Vasantha. Do listen and give feedback…

Movie songs that have used Vasantha include Andhi Mazhai Pozhigiradhu from the movie Raja Parvai … Kanden Kanden from Pirivom Sandhippom … The latter’s link below:

The previous post in the series can be found here.

  • Until next,
    Vid πŸ™‚

13. Vasantha

This post is about the raga Vasantha. One of the oldest raga in vogue for more than a thousand years, it is said; suitable to be sung in the evening.

It is derived from the 17th melakartha (parent raga) Suryakantham. The scale is S M1 G3 M1 D2 N3 S / S N3 D2 M1 G3 R1 S. As you can notice, it is a PA varjya (sans) raga.

Kritis in Vasantha include:

Ramachandram Bhavayami by Dikshitar
Seethamma Maayamma by Thyagaraja
Kodu Bega Divyamathi by Purandara Dasar
Natanam Aadinaar by Gopalakrishna Bharathi

This sound cloud link has a song by Dasar sung in Vasantha. Do listen and give feedback…

Movie songs that have used Vasantha include Andhi Mazhai Pozhigiradhu from the movie Raja Parvai … Kanden Kanden from Pirivom Sandhippom … The latter’s link below:

The previous post in the series can be found here.

– Until next,
Vid πŸ™‚

Charukesi

My last post in the series was Lalitha, and now it is C for Charukesi.

This raga, I feel, has an emotional appeal in both Hindustani and Carnatic Classical. This is the 26th melakartha ragam in the scale chart, thus has all 7 swaras.

Aarohanam: S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S

Charukesi is called Tarangini as well, and a raga that can emote both devotion and pathos to the listener easily.

Kritis in this raga are few, listed below are fewer still…

  • Aadamodigalathe by Thyagaraja
  • Kripaya Palaya by Maharaja Swati Tirunaal
  • Varnam by Lalgudi Jayaraman

The link below contains a swara piece that I had learnt to perform in an event called Nadabrahmam, composed by Chandrakanthji. I ended up not participating in the main event, still the song lingers…

Now to the only part that most of you read – movie songs in the raga Charukesi. There are some really popular ones, very versatile handling of the raga.

  • Vasantha Mullai from Sarangadara
  • Manmada Leelayai Vendraar Undo from Haridas
  • Aadal Kalaye from Sri Ragavendra
  • Thoodhu Selvadhaaradi from Singaravelan

And…. Udhaya Udhaya, a brilliant ARR composition from the movie with the same name… happy listening!

Next up is – V for… Until then,

Vid πŸ™‚

12. Charukesi

My last post in the series was Lalitha, and now it is C for Charukesi.

This raga, I feel, has an emotional appeal in both Hindustani and Carnatic Classical. This is the 26th melakartha ragam in the scale chart, thus has all 7 swaras.

Aarohanam: S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S

Charukesi is called Tarangini as well, and a raga that can emote both devotion and pathos to the listener easily.

Kritis in this raga are few, listed below are fewer still…

  • Aadamodigalathe by Thyagaraja
  • Kripaya Palaya by Maharaja Swati Tirunaal
  • Varnam by Lalgudi Jayaraman

The link below contains a swara piece that I had learnt to perform in an event called Nadabrahmam, composed by Chandrakanthji. I ended up not participating in the main event, still the song lingers…

Now to the only part that most of you read – movie songs in the raga Charukesi. There are some really popular ones, very versatile handling of the raga.

  • Vasantha Mullai from Sarangadara
  • Manmada Leelayai Vendraar Undo from Haridas
  • Aadal Kalaye from Sri Ragavendra
  • Thoodhu Selvadhaaradi from Singaravelan

And…. Udhaya Udhaya, a brilliant ARR composition from the movie with the same name… happy listening!

Next up is – V for… Until then,

Vid πŸ™‚

Lalitha

Any Tamil movie fan will be familiar with Lalitha Kamalam of Unnal Mudiyum Thambi. Did you know that there was a song in the movie on the same raga, Lalitha?

Idhazhil Kadhai Ezhudhum Neramidhu … which exudes the genius of Ilayaraja in every phrase πŸ™‚

Lalitha belongs to the the Mayamalava Gowla janya (15) with the scale as –

Aarohanam: S R G M D N S
Avarohanam: S N D M G R S

There is just one song that I am aware of in this ragam – Hiranmayeem Lakshmeem by Muthuswamy Dikshitar.

Another song I chanced upon, Nannu Brova by Syama Sastri. Find below a video clip by TN Seshagopalan.

My previous post in the series was Karaharapriya. Next up, C for …

  • Until then,
    Vid πŸ™‚

11. Lalitha

Any Tamil movie fan will be familiar with Lalitha Kamalam of Unnal Mudiyum Thambi. Did you know that there was a song in the movie on the same raga, Lalitha?

Idhazhil Kadhai Ezhudhum Neramidhu … which exudes the genius of Ilayaraja in every phrase πŸ™‚

Lalitha belongs to the the Mayamalava Gowla janya (15) with the scale as –

Aarohanam: S R G M D N S
Avarohanam: S N D M G R S

There is just one song that I am aware of in this ragam – Hiranmayeem Lakshmeem by Muthuswamy Dikshitar.

Another song I chanced upon, Nannu Brova by Syama Sastri. Find below a video clip by TN Seshagopalan.

My previous post in the series was Karaharapriya. Next up, C for …

– Until then,
Vid πŸ™‚

Karaharapriya

After a long time, getting back to the raga series. After Hindolam, the ragam I chose to write about is Karaharapriya, the first melakartha (parent) raga in my list as of now. Something that stuck me as a surprise is the fact that this raga has not been used by both Muthuswamy Dikshitar or Syama Sasthri, two of the Trinity of Carnatic Music. Only Thyagaraja has dealt with it in a lot of compositions.

Some of his and other songs in Karaharapriya are:

  • Chakkani Raja (Thyagaraja)
  • Rama Nee Samana Mevaru (Thyagaraja)
  • Pakkala Nilapadi (Thyagaraja)
  • Paramukhan Enayya (Papanasam Sivan)
  • Okkapari (Annamayya)

A rightly sung Karaharapriya is supposed to bring out the karuna rasa. It is the 22nd melakartha raga. The name Karaharapriya means “loved by Siva who slayed Khara the demon”. This raga is in use in various country Music such as Greece, Arabian, and in Paalai lands of Tamizh, says Prof. Janakiraman, musicologist.

Movie songs in this raga are a miscellaneous list…

  • Madhavi Ponmayilaal in Iru Malargal
  • Maharajan Ulagai Aalalaam in Karnan (not featured inΒ  the movie)
  • Sangeetha Swarangal in Azhagan
  • Maapillaiku Maaman Manasu in Netri Kan
  • Poo Malarndhida in Tic Tic Tic

This really crazy song in Karaharapriya for you … Believe me, crazy is the word … the song features a loose ponnu and an ara loose doctor :P… plus the magic of (late) TMS!!

  • Until next,
    Vid πŸ™‚

10. Karaharapriya

After a long time, getting back to the raga series. After Hindolam, the ragam I chose to write about is Karaharapriya, the first melakartha (parent) raga in my list as of now. Something that stuck me as a surprise is the fact that this raga has not been used by both Muthuswamy Dikshitar or Syama Sasthri, two of the Trinity of Carnatic Music. Only Thyagaraja has dealt with it in a lot of compositions.

Some of his and other songs in Karaharapriya are:

  • Chakkani Raja (Thyagaraja)
  • Rama Nee Samana Mevaru (Thyagaraja)
  • Pakkala Nilapadi (Thyagaraja)
  • Paramukhan Enayya (Papanasam Sivan)
  • Okkapari (Annamayya)

A rightly sung Karaharapriya is supposed to bring out the karuna rasa. It is the 22nd melakartha raga. The name Karaharapriya means “loved by Siva who slayed Khara the demon”. This raga is in use in various country Music such as Greece, Arabian, and in Paalai lands of Tamizh, says Prof. Janakiraman, musicologist.

Movie songs in this raga are a miscellaneous list…

  • Madhavi Ponmayilaal in Iru Malargal
  • Maharajan Ulagai Aalalaam in Karnan (not featured inΒ  the movie)
  • Sangeetha Swarangal in Azhagan
  • Maapillaiku Maaman Manasu in Netri Kan
  • Poo Malarndhida in Tic Tic Tic

This really crazy song in Karaharapriya for you … Believe me, crazy is the word … the song features a loose ponnu and an ara loose doctor :P… plus the magic of (late) TMS!!

– Until next,
Vid πŸ™‚

9. Hindolam

I used to hate this ragam one upon a time. Reason is I never get it right πŸ˜› It is not that it is complex, but is tricky, being a Pa sans raga. It is Hindolam, a Natabhairavi janya, with the below scale…

Aarohanam: S G2 M1 D1 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D1 M1 G2 S

Hindolam is an equivalent of Hindustani’s Malkauns. It has a characteristics of being a serene, gentle, soulful, meditative, enchanting and pleasing. A raga which has both the “viraga dhabamum charana gathi nenjum” (it is capable of invoking romantic feel at an instance, devotion to God in another!). The name Hindolam, it seems, means swing. No wonder, huh πŸ˜‰

The below song is Nambikkettavar Everayya, a song on Sivan by (Papanasam) Sivan…

Songs in Hindolam include:

  • Samajavaragamana by Thyagaraja
  • Govardhana Gireesham by Muthuswamy Dikshitar
  • Maa Ramanan by Papanasam Sivan
  • Mamavathu Sri by Mysore Vasudevacharyar
  • Ramanukku Mannan Mudi by Arunachala Kavirayar
  • Karunanidhiye by Mayuram Vedanayagam Pillai (he was a Christian by birth, and the song is not on any specific God)
  • Naanilam Potrum Nagoora tuned by Nagoor Hanifa

Hindolam seems to have been music composers’ favourite. Melodies in movies are abound from then to now…

  • Maname Muruganin – Kuzhandayum Deivamum
  • Azhaikkadhe – Manalane Mangayin Bagyam
  • Rajasekara – Anarkali
  • Om Namashivaya – Salangai Oli
  • Darisanam Kidaikkadha – Alaigal Oivadhillai
  • Pothi Vecha – Manvasanai
  • Maalai Pozhudhin Mayakkathile – Bhagyalakshmi
  • Mazhai Kodukkum (part of the song) – Karnan (the King Karnan’s intro till 1.25 min in the below video)

For the previous raga in the list – Gambira Nattai

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

Hindolam

I used to hate this ragam one upon a time. Reason is I never get it right πŸ˜› It is not that it is complex, but is tricky, being a Pa sans raga. It is Hindolam, a Natabhairavi janya, with the below scale…

Aarohanam: S G2 M1 D1 N2 S

Avarohanam: S N2 D1 M1 G2 S

Hindolam is an equivalent of Hindustani’s Malkauns. It has a characteristics of being a serene, gentle, soulful, meditative, enchanting and pleasing. A raga which has both the “viraga dhabamum charana gathi nenjum” (it is capable of invoking romantic feel at an instance, devotion to God in another!). The name Hindolam, it seems, means swing. No wonder, huh πŸ˜‰

The below song is Nambikkettavar Everayya, a song on Sivan by (Papanasam) Sivan…

Songs in Hindolam include:

  • Samajavaragamana by Thyagaraja
  • Govardhana Gireesham by Muthuswamy Dikshitar
  • Maa Ramanan by Papanasam Sivan
  • Mamavathu Sri by Mysore Vasudevacharyar
  • Ramanukku Mannan Mudi by Arunachala Kavirayar
  • Karunanidhiye by Mayuram Vedanayagam Pillai (the song is not on any specific God)
  • Naanilam Potrum Nagoora tuned by Nagoor Hanifa

Hindolam seems to have been music composers’ favourite. Melodies in movies are abound from then to now…

  • Maname Muruganin – Kuzhandayum Deivamum
  • Azhaikkadhe – Manalane Mangayin Bagyam
  • Rajasekara – Anarkali
  • Om Namashivaya – Salangai Oli
  • Darisanam Kidaikkadha – Alaigal Oivadhillai
  • Pothi Vecha – Manvasanai
  • Maalai Pozhudhin Mayakkathile – Bhagyalakshmi
  • Mazhai Kodukkum (part of the song) – Karnan (Karnan’s intro till 1:50 min in the below video)

For the previous raga in the list – Gambira Nattai

  • Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

Gambira Nattai

Did you know that Narumugaye from the movie Iruvar (A R Rahman) was on a raga that was as “gambeeram” as Gambhira Nattai? I think it is!

Yet another song from the movie Singaravelan, Innum Ennai Enna Seyya (Ilayaraja) should also be the same raga.

Gambira nattai is derived from Chala Nattai. It differs from the raga Nattai on a Ri. The scale is –

Aarohanam: S G3 M1 P N3 S

Avarohanam: S N3 P M1 G3 S

Listen to the classical rendition of Sri Vighna Rajam Bhaje is a Oothukkadu Venkata Subbayyar composition in Gambhira Nattai, fast-paced and set in Thisra nadai.

For the previous post in the series, click here.

  • Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

8. Gambira Nattai

Did you know that Narumugaye from the movie Iruvar (A R Rahman) was on a raga that was as “gambeeram” as Gambhira Nattai? I think it is!

Yet another song from the movie Singaravelan, Innum Ennai Enna Seyya (Ilayaraja) should also be the same raga.

Gambira nattai is derived from Chala Nattai. It differs from the raga Nattai on a Ri. The scale is –

Aarohanam: S G3 M1 P N3 S

Avarohanam: S N3 P M1 G3 S

Listen to the classical rendition of Sri Vighna Rajam Bhaje is a Oothukkadu Venkata Subbayyar composition in Gambhira Nattai, fast-paced and set in Thisra nadai.

For the previous post in the series, click here.

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

7. Desh

After Sahana, we move from soothing and relaxing to a little more fun-loving, happy but melodious, Audava-Sampoorna raga – Desh. It is suitable to be sung in the first quarter of the night, it seems πŸ˜‰ Also, this raga is associated with qualities such asΒ Diplomacy, Collectivity, Respect for others.

Audava and Sampoorna as the name implies gives it a scale, S R2 M1 P N3 S / S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S and is derived from the parent Harikamboji.

This raga is essentially from the Hindustani genre and hence we did not have any of the Trinity composing in Desh. However, a striking song that comes to memory is Vande Mataram – what more fitting example than the National Song of India! The recording below is a medley of a few songs in Desh, all by post-Trinity composers:

Paayumoli Neeyenakku (Bharathiyar) –> Eliruva Thandhe (Purandara Dasar) –> Thum Hi Shankar (Mangalam Ganapathy) –> Maadu Meikkum (Oothukadu Venkata Subbaiyar) –> Desh Thillana (Lalgudi Jayaraman)

Moving on to cinema, there are many songs inspired by Desh, not completely. But some stick on to the essence. Just like… Thunbam Nergayil from Oor Iravu, Androru Naal Idhe Nilavil from Nadodi, Kanave Kalaiyadhe from Kannedhire Thondrinaal.

– Until next,

Vid πŸ™‚

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